Textile Industry Wastewater Treatment

textile wastewater

The textile industry is one of the most water-consuming industrial sectors and therefore, releases large volume of wastewater. Textile wastewater (TWW) is characterized by its strong color and high amount of chemicals and auxiliaries (used during the dye solubilization process), which limit light absorption and severely deteriorate aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, this kind of wastewater also presents significant concentrations of organic matter, nutrients, recalcitrant compounds, high salinity, heavy metals, and variable pH.

Conventional technologies for textile wastewater treatment mainly comprise biological treatment, precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, flotation, oxidation and adsorption.

ProcessStageStatusPerformanceLimitations
Biodegradation
Activated sludgeMain treatmentWidely usedBulk COD removal; partial nitrificationHigh residual COD, ammonia, color
Sequential anaerobic-aerobicMain treatment Few reports of full-scale useBetter COD and color removal than AS alone High residual COD, color
Fixed bedMain treatment Pilot trials in ChinaBetter COD and color removal than AS alone Some residual color
Fungi/H2O2Main treatment Bench-scaleFull decolorization
Physicochemical treatment
Coagulation-flocculationPre-, main or post-treatmentExtensive useAlmost full decolorization; water reuseUnreliable performance; sludge disposal
Adsorption Pre- or post-treatment Bench- to full- scale depending on adsorbentWater reuse with newer adsorbentsSludge disposal or adsorbent regeneration
Membrane filtrationMain or post-treatment Extensive use in South AfricaReliable performance; water reuseConcentrate management
Oxidation
OzonationPost-treatmentFull-scaleFull decolorization; water reuse Expensive; aldehydes formed
Fenton’s reagentPre-treatmentSeveral full-scale plant is South AfricaFull decolorization
PhotocatalysisPost-treatment Pilot-scaleNear complete color removalFor final polishing only
ElectrolysisPre-treatment Pilot-scale Full decolorization Foaming; limited electrode life

FARAN’s tailor made solutions for textile wastewater effluents, includes but not limited to:

  • Decolorization process by means of advanced oxidation process (Fenton, ozone or combination process), chemical precipitation by means of engineered flocculants customized for decoloring of the wastewater;
  • Biological treatment to remove BOD and COD content;
  • Membrane filtration and/or desalination for recycling targets;

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